Some days ago an email arrived from an artist, asking me how to setup a realistic bird wing in 3D.
I was planing on replying his email with a short tutorial but then I realized that there maybe be more artists out there that have the need of a bird wing tutorial.
I have always been inspired by birds and the complexity of their wings. So about one and a half year ago I adopted a budgie for the sole purpose of animation studies. Pretty soon we were best friends and she learned to speak a few simple Swedish words. At first glance it seems like birds have a totally different bone anatomy than a human, but in fact bird joints are not very different from human joints at all. The tricky part in a bird rig is all the freaking feathers everywhere. The feathers are not randomly placed and do not have the same shape, so study pictures of wing anatomy before you start, and remember that different birds have different types of wings.
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. Primary flights and Secondary flights. Primary flights are parented to the Corpomatacarpus joint and the Secondary flights are parented to the Ulna joint. Don`t forget that you want the pivot point to be placed at the feather bracket. If you move the Corpomatacarpus joint in the rig you should have two groups of feathers that are not connected to each other. So the next step will be to get the feathers connected to each other. To do that I select 3 feathers ( A, B, C in the picture to the right) and use a rotate orientConstraint, so if I rotate A or C, the B feather will stay in between. Just keep on repeating the last step so that every feather is constrained to its neighbor. This step can take some time but it shouldn’t be to hard to make some sort of script to speed up the process. Now the core of the bird rig is finished and if you now move the Corpomatacarpus joint the folding and unfolding should work! If you want a more lifelike bird wing you might want to add dynamics to the feathers or some sort of bend controller.
All the small feathers covering the body of the bird are a bit more tricky to achieve. If you google for pictures of feather tracts you will get a basic understanding of where to put the small feathers. Nothing is random as I mentioned before. Basically the best way I have come up with is to make nurbs planes that are skinned into the rig and filled with small feathers connected to controllers so you can have control over the feather surface. My advice is to paint a regular texture for the body and skip the body feathers if you don’t have any close up shots. Its not worth the time it will take to get a good result and your computer will most likely cry rivers if you try modeling out every single one of them.